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Old May 20th, 2016, 09:06 AM   #1
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Abrogation in the Quran

Abrogation is a understanding that later items supersede earlier items. In other words, early work in the Quran is peaceful. later passages are very violent. The violent passages make the peaceful passages null and void.



Peace or Jihad? Abrogation in Islam :: Middle East Quarterly

Abrogation and Jihad

How does the theological debate over abrogation impact contemporary policy formulation? While not all terrorism is rooted in Islam, the religion is an enabler for many. It is wrong to assume that more extreme interpretations of religion are illegitimate. Statements that there is no compulsion in religion and that jihad is primarily about internal struggle and not about holy war may receive applause in university lecture halls and diplomatic board rooms, but they misunderstand the importance of abrogation in Islamic theology. It is important to acknowledge that what university scholars believe, and what most Muslims—or more extreme Muslims—believe are two different things. For many Islamists and radical Muslims, abrogation is real and what the West calls terror is, indeed, just.
During the lifetime of Muhammad, the Islamic community passed through three stages. In the beginning from 610 until 622, God commanded restraint. As the Muslims relocated to Medina (623-26), God permitted Muslims only to fight in a defensive war. However, in the last six years of Muhammad's life (626-32), God permitted Muslims to fight an aggressive war first against polytheists,and later against monotheists like the Jews of Khaybar.Once Muhammad was given permission to kill in the name of God, he instigated battle.

Chapter 9 of the Qur'an, in English called "Ultimatum," is the most important concerning the issues of abrogation and jihad against unbelievers. It is the only chapter that does not begin "in the name of God, most benevolent, ever-merciful."Commentators agree that Muhammad received this revelation in 631, the year before his death, when he had returned to Mecca and was at his strongest. Muhammad bin Ismail al-Bukhari (810-70), compiler of one of the most authoritative collections of the hadith, said that "Ultimatum" was the last chapter revealed to Muhammadalthough others suggest it might have been penultimate. Regardless, coming at or near the very end of Muhammad's life, "Ultimatum" trumps earlier revelations.
Because this chapter contains violent passages, it abrogates previous peaceful content. Muhsin Khan, the translator of Sahih al-Bukhari, says God revealed "Ultimatum" in order to discard restraint and to command Muslims to fight against all the pagans as well as against the People of the Book if they do not embrace Islam or until they pay religious taxes. So, at first aggressive fighting was forbidden; it later became permissible (2:190) and subsequently obligatory (9:5).This "verse of the sword" abrogated, canceled, and replaced 124 verses that called for tolerance, compassion, and peace
Suyuti said that everything in the Qur'an about forgiveness and peace is abrogated by verse 9:5, which orders Muslims to fight the unbelievers and to establish God's kingdom on earth.
Prior to receiving "Ultimatum," Muhammad had reached agreements with various Arab tribes. But when God gave Muhammad a revelation (2:190-2), Muhammad felt justified in breaking his cease-fire. For Isma'il bin Kathir (1301-73), a student of Ibn Taymiyya and an influential Qur'an interpreter in his own right, it is clear: As jihad involves death and the killing of men, God draws attention to the fact that disbelief, polytheism, and avoidance of God's path as shown by the Qur'an are worse than killing them.This creates license for future generations of Muslims to kill non-Muslims solely on the basis of their refusal to accept Islam.


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Classical scholars argued that anyone who studied the Qur'an without having mastered the doctrine of abrogation would be "deficient."Those who do not accept abrogation fall outside the mainstream and, perhaps, even the religion itself.

Last edited by arcturus88; May 20th, 2016 at 09:42 AM.
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Old May 20th, 2016, 09:15 AM   #2
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Originally Posted by arcturus88 View Post
Abrogation is a understanding that later items supersede earlier items. In other words, early work in the Quran is peaceful. later passages are very violent. The violent passages make the peaceful passages null and void.

....snip.....
Yup...especially when they lead to brutality and terrorism.

Basically Islam has allowed itself to be completely defined by its worst followers, and many no longer even care to listen or learn about the good.
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Old May 20th, 2016, 09:45 AM   #3
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Originally Posted by Aufgeblassen View Post
Same with the Bible?
I can't speak for all Christians of course, but I think that generally, Christians accept the notion that some things written were bound in the culture of the time (particularly the old testament) and not about dictating the here and now.
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